An evaluation of three parent training programs
University of Texas at Arlington
This dissertation evaluated three video format parent training
programs. Each program represents a unique approach to parenting.
Winning! is based upon behavioral parenting theory; Active
Parenting is based upon Adlerian parenting theory; The
Nurturing Program for Parents and Children 4 to 12 Years
is an eclectic program including behavioral, Adlerian, developmental
and reparenting theories.
Both professionals and nonprofessionals served as parenting
instructors. Subjects who were enrolled in Winning! classes
signed up for an eight-week course consisting of about eight hours
of training. Subjects who enrolled in The Nurturing Program
committed to 15 weeks of classes consisting of about 37 to 45
hours of training. Subjects who enrolled in Active Parenting
received about 7 hours of training over 7 weeks.
Subjects were required to complete three assessment instruments.
The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) measures subjects
attitudes on four parenting constructs: expectations of children,
empathy for children, physical punishment, and family roles. The
Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA) measures the severity of parent-child
relationship problems. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation
Scales III (FACES III) provides an analysis of the functioning
of a family.
In general, the findings of the study are as follows. Winning!
is effective at reducing the severity of parent-child problems
in abusive families. For parents that are not abusive, both Winning!
and Active Parenting effectively reduce the severity
of parent-child problems. Of the parent training programs evaluated,
Active Parenting has the strongest impact upon improving
the functioning of family systems. The Nurturing Program
is the most effective at increasing the appropriateness of parents
(1) expectations for their children, (2) empathy for their children,
(3) attitudes toward physical punishment, and (4) attitudes toward
family roles when those parents attitude scores are average or
below average on the AAPI. Winning! is effective only
with parents whose attitudes are below average on the AAPI. Active
Parenting is comparatively ineffective in altering the parenting
attitudes measured by the AAPI.